Theme: Conflict (Resources)

Article: The Last Serb Student from Prizren

Keywords: South Eastern Europe, English, media content, conflict, social diversity models, Refugees/IDPs For one whole year Petar Petrovic, 15, was the only remaining student from Kosovo's Prizren municipality, which Serbs fled en masse after the 1999 war. Petar and his older brother Sinisa were the only children among a handful of Serbs that stayed in the village of Musnikovo.

Article: The Media & Darfur

Keywords: Diversity in general, Africa (Sub-Saharan), UK, study, media ethic & diversity, human rights, English, TV In July 2006, veteran award-winning journalist Jonathan Steele gave an address at the Royal United Services Institute, London, entitled "How the Media prolonged the war in Darfur." In it, he outlined eight mistakes committed by the media in covering the region which have prolonged the conflict artificially.

Article: The Media and the Rwanda Genocide

Keywords: International, Africa, Rwanda, English, media, education, study, conflict resolution, journalism This is the first book to explore both sides of that media equation. The book examines how local radio and print media were used as a tool of hate, encouraging neighbours to turn against each other. It also presents a critique of international media coverage of the cataclysmic events in Rwanda.

Article: The Media Markers on Race and Ethnicity in the Balkans

Keywords: South East Europe, English, conflict, race & ethnicity, article, good practice. In the summer of 1997 I did a BBC radio programme on xenophobia in the Czech Republic. One of the people I interviewed, a minister, asked me whether there were any visible differences between Serbs and Croats. “Of course,” I said, trying to be humorous. “Just look at my nose. We Serbs have beaks, whereas Croats have those ugly snouts."... (by Milica Pesic, Rhodes  Journalism Review 20, 2001) The Media Markers on Race and Ethnicity in the Balkans [EN].doc

Article: The Media's Role in Preventing and Moderating Conflict

Keywords: International, English, media, conflict, guide, good practice. We cannot avoid asking ourselves what more can be done to reduce and prevent conflict and the suffering that attends it, but why invoke the media in this context? Because, taken together, mass media technologies, institutions, professionals, norms, and practices constitute a fundamental force shaping the lives of individuals and the fate of peoples and nations. The media constitute a major human resource whose potential to help prevent and moderate social violence begs to be discussed, evaluated, and, where appropriate, mobilized..... (by Robert Karl Manoff - RD Manual, 1997) The Media's Role in Preventing and Moderating Conflict [EN].doc

Article: The Outsiders: the Roma in Europe

Keywords: All Europe, English, Roma & Travellers, conflict, study/report, social diversity models, resource for NGO A selection of articles documenting the history of the Roma as well as their treatment in the Czech republic, Britain, Scandinavia and the EU as a whole. (Searchlight, April 2001) The Outsiders - the Roma in Europe.doc

Article: The Plight of the Mentally ill in Bulgaria

Keywords: Eastern Europe, Bulgaria, English, mental health, socially disadvantaged people, media content, print The shelter for mentally disturbed people in the Bulgarian village of Podgumer is among the best such institutions in the country, but only because all the others are much worse. "I came here 16 years ago. Until then I knew the inside of concentration camps only from the movies, but now

Article: The report of the OSCE high level meeting on “Confronting Anti-Semitism in Public Discourse”, Prague,23-24 March 2011

The meeting provided a forum for representatives of OSCE participating States, the media, and political and civil society actors to discuss sensitive issues related to anti-Semitism in public discourse and to share best practices. A total of 164 participants registered, including 51 civil society representatives. Participants came from 36 participating States. The meeting took place in the framework of the OSCE’s ongoing efforts to promote international co-operation to combat anti-Semitism. These efforts have yielded positive results, in particular in response to hate crimes, which are the most insidious form of anti-Semitism. Despite these efforts, expressions of anti-Semitism in public discourse remain a serious issue of concern in the OSCE region. Manifestations of anti-Semitism exacerbate hostile attitudes towards Jews and have the potential to fuel anti-Semitic incidents. Expressions of anti-Semitism in public discourse have not gathered the attention they deserve throughout the OSCE region, and often governments have been slow in responding or have failed to respond properly. The report also includes recommendations made by participants addressed to a variety of actors, including OSCE participating States and OSCE institutions and field operations, as well as other international organizations, civil society organizations and the media.


Article: The role of the Media in Supporting Peace-Building and Reconciliation in Central Sulawesi, Maluku and North Maluku

Keywords: International, Africa, English, entertainment education, media, ethics, journalism, study, conflict Reliable, accurate and objective media, whether it be mainstream, alternative or traditional/nonconventional, can both prevent and resolve conflict through the automatic functions of responsibly disseminating information, furthering awareness and knowledge, promoting participatory and transparent governance, and addressing perceived grievances.

Article: They blame the buses. I blame the bigots

Keywords: Western Europe, UK, English, media content, Refugees/IDPs, conflict, print David Aaronovitch at The Guardian examines objections by the citizens of the Vale, near Bristol, to having an asylum seeker processing centre located in their area. (The Guardian 27 April, 2004) They blame the buses. I blame the biggots.doc


Article: Tips: What a Peace Journalist Would Try to Do?

Keywords: International, [EN], guidebook, education, media ethics, peace journalism. The following notes are from Peace Journalism — How To Do It, by Jake Lynch and Annabel McGoldrick (, written Sydney, 2000. See the two contrasting articles by Jake Lynch which illustrate some of these points. Tips What a Peace Journalist Would Try to Do [EN].doc

Article: Two War Buddies

Keywords: South Eastern Europe, English, conflict, media content, ethnicity, print Suad Jasarevic, 10, says he wants to be a painter when he grows up. Then, he says, he could repaint the Rada Vranjesevic Centre for Children Without Parents in Banjaluka, where he has been living ever since war broke out in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which is to say a whole decade ago. (by Ljiljana Kovacevic - BETA - MDI, 2002) Two War Buddies.doc


Article: UK press coverage of asylum issues can be linked to racist attacks

Keywords: Western Europe, English, refugees migrants, media article, media coverage, media, report study. Press coverage of asylum issues in the UK can be linked to racist attacks and street harassment, say academics in a new report, 'Media Image, Community Impact'. The first research of its kind, it says negative reporting in UK newspapers triggers hostile actions because it increases community tension. The report was prepared by the Information Centre About Asylum and Refugees (ICAR), and commissioned and funded by the Mayor of London. Full ICAR Media-Refugees Relations Report [EN].pdf Executive summary of ICAR Report [EN].pdf ICAR Information about the report [EN].doc BBC coverage of the report [EN].doc

Article: Uncovering Media Bias: The “Ground Zero Mosque” Case Study

This study is intended to be an initial step towards a deeper analysis of how concrete media messages (in time and location) facilitate cultural perceptions that deliver political language, ultimately channeling policy (locally and globally). For the UNAOC, research such as this is immensely valuable since the main goal of the organization is to support constructive intercultural dialogue between different cultures and religions of the world. What an individual believes as true knowledge about “the other” is of paramount importance for the establishment of open communication and sincere understanding among different groups. In contemporary societies media messages are the main providers of the information that develops (for the individual as well as for the group) into the perceived truth, understood as unbiased knowledge, of what “the other” is and represents. The media representation of Islam is repeatedly linked to controversial events and conflicts. One such example is the controversy of the so-called “Ground Zero Mosque,” a local New York City debate that became a US national issue, then a global issue, catalyzing international media attention around this contentious label. The goal of this study was to observe and analyze the impact that this “non-event” had on media. To do so, the research teams analyzed online and printed media from the US, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East. The story and the story telling Park51 is a planned Muslim community center to be located two blocks from the World Trade Center site in lower Manhattan. The proposed plan includes a performing arts center, a fitness center, a bookstore, a culinary school, a September 11 memorial, and a prayer space for the Muslim community. It is intended to be a platform for multi-faith dialogue. The plans were reviewed and approved by the local community board in May 2010. Conservative bloggers affiliated with the group “Stop Islamization of America,” launched a campaign against the project, renaming it the "Ground Zero Mosque,” which prompted a national controversy. The story attracted national media attention, which discussed the mosque set to be erected in the heart of Ground Zero—a much more sensational story than that of a Muslim cultural center located “two blocks away.” Politicians started using it as a political campaign issue for the 2010 US midterm elections. The story became so controversial that President Obama made the statement: “As a citizen, and as president, I believe that Muslims have the same right to practice their religion as everyone else in this country…that includes the right to build a place of worship and a community center on private property in lower Manhattan, in accordance with local laws and ordinances.” Results The research shows that in the US different political interests set the media agenda. Internationally, news outlets that similarly labeled the story consciously understood the harmful nature of this misuse of terminology, as evidenced by warnings of bigotry and Islamophobia. However, their reports still focused on confrontation. Media concentrated on the sensational part of the story. Drawing an emotional connection with readers is seen as more effective than the information itself. Additionally, international media told the story through the US media lens: journalists used information elaborated by other journalists as a primary source, which helped to produce perceptions of fear and threat. Insufficient knowledge and the misuse of terminology, therefore, may create a disinformation effect that can threaten peace in multicultural communities. The importance of media literacy Citizenship education should address questions relevant to the role of media in multicultural societies. Individuals should be aware of how the media deal with migrants, multiculturalism, and, in this particular case, Islamic culture and religion. They should be enabled and encouraged to develop critical thinking skills in order to differentiate media messages and identify stereotypes, Islamophobia, radicalism, and racism within the media discourse. For more information about Uncovering Media Bias: The “Ground Zero Mosque” Case Study, please visit: The research project has been conducted by the International Center on Media & the Public Agenda (ICMPA), at the University of Maryland (USA),  and the Gabinete de Comunicación y Educación of the University Autònoma of Barcelona (Spain), in partnership with the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations (UNAOC)

Article: Unprotected – Palestinians in Egypt since 1948

Keywords: Middle East, Palestine, Egypt, English, book, conflict, refugee, history, education Although much has been written about Palestinian refugees in general, the origins and history of the Palestinian refugee problem, and the conditions of Palestinians living in what is known as the Arab “host countries,” little has been written about the Palestinians in Egypt.

Article: Vojvodina Germans Seek Moral and Cultural Rehabilitation

Keywords: Western Europe, English, conflict, media content, print Franz Jerger, 72, holds firmly a snapshot of his family while standing in front of a monument to Germans who died in a communist camp in Knicanin, Vojvodina. Almost all his brothers and sisters were killed in the camp immediately after World War II. As he remembers these events, his eyes begin filling with tears...... (by Darko Sper - BETA - MDI, 2003) Vojvodina Germans Seek Moral and Cultural Rehabilitation.doc


Article: What is Community Radio

Keywords: International, Africa, English, entertainment education, radio, journalism, methodology, guide, conflict resolution, resources for media, civil society organizations This AMARC Africa booklet discusses the role of community radio stations in building participatory democracy and development in Africa - and offers ideas as to how such stations can be established. It provides an understanding of the renewed popularity in community radio, as well as the reasons why it is controversial, and perhaps threatening, from the point of view of commercial and public broadcasters. what is community radio A resource guide [EN].pdf


Article: Women: Victims of Domestic and Marital Violence

Keywords: South Eastern Europe, sex, media content, gender, print When Rizida Bekirova of Skopje married eight years ago, she was a happy and content young woman who could not imagine that she would end up in the small and dilapidated Skopje Women's Center, the only one of its kind in Macedonia....... (by Snezana Lupevska - BETA - MDI, 2002) Women - Victims of Domestic and Marital Violence.doc

Article: Young and Wilders / Jong en Wilders (only in Dutch)

Keywords: Western Europe, the Netherlands, Dutch, Geert Wilders, youth, freedom of expression, conflict, media content, documentary, religion, social diversity models, visual, media organizations [EN] A documentary made by Zembla; 54 % of the youth, ranging from between 14 and 16 years old, think negative about Muslims. That came out of a research done by professor H. Dekker from the University of Leiden and the University of Utrecht. The research made clear that the most important reason for this negative attitude comes from the lack of direct contact with Muslims. Another reason for the negative feelings are the opinion of friends and parents. Boys are more negative than girls and an opinion of 15 years old today is difficult to change unless something very radical happens.  In the Zembla- episode ‘Young and Wilders’ young people talk openly about the problems that they have with foreigners and the Islam.   [DU] Een documentaire door Zembla;  54% van de jongeren, in de leeftijd van 14 tot 16 jaar, denkt negatief over moslims. Dat blijkt uit een onderzoek van professor H. Dekker van de Universiteit Leiden en de Universiteit Utrecht. Het onderzoek wijst verder uit dat de belangrijkste verklaring voor deze negatieve houding het gebrek aan direct contact met moslims is. Andere verklaringen voor de negatieve gevoelens zijn de mening van beste vrienden en ouders. Jongens zijn negatiever dan meisjes en een negatieve houding van een 15-jarige anno nu is moeilijk te veranderen tenzij er iets heel ingrijpends gebeurt. In de ZEMBLA-aflevering ‘Jong en Wilders’ praten jongeren openhartig over de problemen die zij hebben met allochtonen en de Islam.

Article: Youth Radio for Peacebuilding Guide

Keywords: International, Africa, English, French, entertainment education, methodology, guide, radio, conflict resolution, journalism, youth, children, community media, citizen journalism, resources for media, resources for NGOs, civil society organizations This is a guidebook, not a workshop or conference report. It has been written for radio broadcasters (adults and youth) who want to make good, entertaining youth radio programmes which also build peace. The tools described here are meant for use by those working in radio, but they can also be used by youth workers and young leaders to design and implement their own radio initiatives. Some broadcasters may be familiar with some of the ideas, but we hope that it also contains a lot of new and useful material. – Search For Common Ground Youth Radio for Peacebuilding Guide [EN].pdf Youth Radio for Peacebuilding Guide [FR].pdf    

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